DOI: https://doi.org/10.24959/ophcj.13.761

Carbene variations of some classical reactions

O. P. Shvaika, M. I. Korotkikh

Abstract


Carbene variations of a series of fundamental reactions, the features of their course in comparison with classical analogues have been first summarized and analyzed in the review. A number of carbene transformations described in the literature relates to classical name reactions being substantially their carbene variations acquiring the characteristics with the participation of carbenes. The attention in the review is drawn to such important analogies. Besides the carbene mechanism, they differ from the classical versions of the reactions because they mostly proceed under milder, sometimes considerably milder conditions. They always lead to specific products, the structure of which is conditioned by the nature of carbenes as ambiphilic reagents, and it affects certain stages and the final result of the reaction. In the above terms, such reactions are considered for the cases when carbenes are stoichiometrical components (carbene variations of Bodger, Michaelis-Arbuzov, Leuckart-Wallach reactions, Claisen condensation, Hoffman elimination), as well as for the cases when they are catalytic components (transesterification, Stetter reactions, benzoin condensation, nucleophilic aromatic substitution). At the present stage carbene variations of the classical reactions have become promising in the synthesis of some pharmaceutical substances, as well as in diesel fuel obtaining from vegetable oils. The review is intended to initiate further searches and deepening of such analogies.


Keywords


carbenes; reactions; catalysis

References


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