The Synthesis and Acid-base Properties of α-(Fluoromethyl)- and α-(Difluoromethyl)-substituted Cyclobutane Building Blocks




cyclobutane, fluorine, acidity/basicity, amine, carboxylic acid


Aim. To synthesize cyclobutane-derived amines and carboxylic acids bearing CH2F or CHF2 groups in the α position; to determine the regularities of the effect of fluoroalkyl substituents on the acid-base properties of the title compounds.
Results and discussion. Synthetic approaches to 1-(fluoromethyl)- and 1-(difluoromethyl)cyclobutanamines, 1-(fluoromethyl)- and 1-(difluoromethyl)cyclobutanecarboxylic acids have been developed. It has been found that the pKa (pKa(H)) values measured for the title compounds, as well as for their non-substituted and CF3-substituted analogues, are consistent with the electron-withdrawing effect of the corresponding fluoroalkyl substituents.
Experimental part. The synthesis of the title compounds commenced from the known ethyl 1-(hydroxymethyl)cyclobutanecarboxylate or the product of its Swern oxidation (the corresponding aldehyde) and included fluorination, alkaline ester hydrolysis (for carboxylic acids), and modified Curtius rearrangement (for amines). The pKa value was determined from the pre-equivalence point part of the titration curve using the standard acid-base titration.
Conclusions. A newly developed synthetic approach to 1-(fluoromethyl)- and 1-(difluoromethyl)cyclobutanamines, 1-(fluoromethyl)- and 1-(difluoromethyl)cyclobutanecarboxylic acids allows to obtain the title compounds in multigram quantities (up to 97 g). With a single exception, the acid-base properties of these products, as well as their parent non-substituted and CF3-substituted analogues, change in a monotonous manner in accordance with inductive electronic effect of the fluorine atom(s).

Supporting Agency

  • The work was supported by Enamine Ltd., Ministry of Education and Science of Ukraine (grants No. 0121U100387 (21BF037-01M) and 0122U001962 (22BF037-02)), and National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine (grant No. 0119U102718).


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How to Cite

Demchuk, O.; Grygorenko, O. The Synthesis and Acid-Base Properties of α-(Fluoromethyl)- and α-(Difluoromethyl)-Substituted Cyclobutane Building Blocks. J. Org. Pharm. Chem. 2023, 21, 3-9.



Original Researches