Vol. 17 No. 1(65) (2019)

Published: 2019-03-13

Original Researches

  • The synthesis and the study of the antitumor activity of 1,4-diaryl-5,6,7,8-tetrahydro-2,2a,8a triazacyclopenta[cd]azulene derivatives

    S. A. Demchenko, Yu. A. Fedchenkova, L. S. Bobkova, L. P. Artemchuk, A. M. Demchenko

    Aim. To synthesize, prove the structural framework and study the antitumor activity of 1,4-diaryl-5,6,7,8-tetrahydro-2,2a,8a-triazacyclopenta [cd]azulene derivatives.

    Results and discussion. To determine the antineoplastic activity of 1-phenyl-4-aryl-5,6,7,8-tetrahydro-2,2a,8a-triazacyclopenta[cd]azulenes 7a-g and 1-(41-bromophenyl)-4-aryl-5,6,7,8-tetra-hydro-2,2a,8a-triazacyclopenta [cd]azulenes 7h-k the study in vitro was carried out on 60 lines of cancer cells (leukemia, non-small cell lung cancer, colon cancer, CNS cancer, melanoma, ovarian cancer, renal cancer, prostate cancer and breast cancer) under the effect of the substance in the concentration of 10-5 mol/l according to the standard procedure of the mitotic activity assessment of the new potential bioactive compounds by the fluorescent coloring method (sulphorhodamine B as a dye) performed in the US National Institute of cancer within the Development Therapeutic Program.

    Experimental part. 2-Methoxy-3,4,5,6-tetrahydro-7H-azepine was obtained by alkylation of caprolactam with dimethyl sulfate. 3-Phenyl or (41-bromophenyl)-(6,7,8,9-tetrahydro-5H-[1,2,4]triazolo[4,3-a]azepine 4 a,b was obtained by condensation of 2-methoxy-3,4,5,6-tetrahydro-7H-azepine 1 with 4-bromobenzoic acid hydrazide and subsequent cyclization of the intermediate product. The 1Н-NMR spectra were recorded on a Bruker VXR-300 spectrometer (Germany) with the working frequency of 299.945 MHz, in DMSO-d6 using tetramethylsilane (TMS) as an internal standard. The purity of the compounds synthesized was controlled by TLC on the Silufol UV-254 plates in the system of chloroform – methanol (9 : 1).

    Conclusions. New chemical compounds – derivatives of 1-phenyl(41-bromphenyl)-4-aryl-5,6,7,8-tetrahydro-2,2a,8a-triaza-cyclopenta[cd]azulene have been synthesized. The anticancer activity of the compounds obtained on 60 lines of tumor cells in the US National Cancer Institute has been studied. The high-active compounds that exhibit high levels of the antitumor activity have been identified.

    DOI: https://doi.org/10.24959/ophcj.19.959
  • The synthesis of 3-aryl-3-trifluoromethyl-2,3-dihydro-1h-pyrrolizin-1-ones

    S. V. Melnykov, V. M. Tkachuk, A. M. Grozav, I. Gillaizeau, V. A. Sukach

    Aim. To develop the efficient method for the synthesis of 3-aryl-3-trifluoromethyl-2,3-dihydro-1H-pyrrolizin-1-ones as promising scaffolds in design of bioactive compounds.

    Results and discussion. It has been shown that condensation of 3-amino-3-aryl-4,4,4-trifluorobutanoic acid methyl esters with 2,5-dimethoxytetrahydrofuran is a convenient synthetic approach to 4,4,4-trifluoro-3-aryl-3-(1H-pyrrol-1-yl)methylbutanoic acid methyl esters converted to 3-aryl-3-trifluoromethyl-2,3-dihydro-1H-pyrrolizin-1-ones by the intramolecular Friedel-Crafts reaction.

    Experimental part. By the interaction of 3-amino-3-aryl-4,4,4-trifluorobutanoic acid methyl esters with 2,5-dimethoxytetrahydrofuranin acetic acid at 70 оC 4,4,4-trifluoro-3-aryl-3-(1H-pyrrol-1-yl)methylbutanoic acid methyl esters were obtained and subsequently cyclized into 3-aryl-3-trifluoromethyl-2,3-dihydro-1H-pyrrolizin-1-ones upon treatment with boron tribromide in dichloromethane at room temperature. The structures of the compounds synthesized were confirmed by LCMS, IR and NMR (1H, 13C, 19F) spectroscopic methods.

    Conclusions. An efficient two step protocol for the synthesis of 3-aryl-3-trifluoromethyl-2,3-dihydro-1H-pyrrolizin-1-ones has been developed. It includes transformation of 3-amino-3-aryl-4,4,4-trifluorobutanoic acid methyl esters into the corresponding 3-(1H-pyrrol-1-yl) derivatives and their further intramolecular cyclization.
    DOI: https://doi.org/10.24959/ophcj.19.961
  • The synthesis of novel spirocyclic N-aryl-substituted 2-thiopyrimidine-4,6-diones

    N. I. Kobyzhcha, V. M. Holovatiuk, V. V. Rozhkov, V. I. Kashkovsky

    A convenient and efficient method for the synthesis of new unsaturated spiro-annulated N-aryl-4,6-dioxopyrimidine-2-thione derivatives has been developed. The resulting compounds can be potential biological active molecules or precursors for further chemical modification.

    Aim. To develop the methods for the synthesis of new unsaturated spiro-annulated 2-thiopyrimidine-4,6-dione derivatives, which can be used as potentially biological active molecules or precursors for their formation.

    Results and discussion. By condensation of N-aryl-substituted thioureas and allylmalonic acid using acetic anhydride or acetyl chloride the series of 5-allyl-substituted 2-thiopyrimidinediones has been synthesized. Their further alkylation with allyl bromide or metallyl chloride led to formation of 5,5-dialkenyl derivatives, which were converted to the corresponding unsaturated spirocyclic dioxopyrimidine-2-thiones by ring-closing metathesis. 

    Experimental part. The synthesis of the starting compounds and title products was performed by preparative chemical methods, TLC and column chromatography, elemental analysis, NMR-spectroscopy.

    Conclusions. The efficient three-step synthetic route of new unsaturated spiro-annulated N-aryl-4,6-dioxopyrimidine-2-thione derivatives from the starting N-arylsubstituted thioureas and allylmalonic acid has been developed. The spiro-annulated products obtained can find application in biological and pharmaceutical science or as starting substrates for further chemical modification.
    DOI: https://doi.org/10.24959/ophcj.19.962
  • The synthesis and biological assessment of [[1,2,4]triazolo[4,3-a]pyridine-3-yl]acetamides with an 1,2,4-oxadiazol cycle in positions 6, 7 and 8

    V. R. Karpina, S. S. Kovalenko, S. M. Kovalenko, O. V. Zaremba, O. V. Silin, T. Langer

    Fused heterocyclic 1,2,4-triazoles have provided much attention due to variety of their interesting biological properties.

    Aim. To develop the method for the synthesis of novel 2-[(1,2,4-oxadiazol-5-yl)-[1,2,4]triazolo[4,3-a]pyridine-3-yl]acetamides and conduct the biological assessment of the compounds synthesized.

    Results and discussion. A diverse set of acetamides newly synthesized consists of 32 analogs bearing an 1,2,4-oxadiazole cycle in positions 6, 7 and 8. A convenient scheme of the synthesis starts from commercially available 2-chloropyridine-3-, 2-chloropyridine-4-, 2-chloropyridine-5-carboxylic acids with amidoximes to form the corresponding 2-chloro-[3-R1-1,2,4-oxadiazol-5-yl]pyridines, then follows the reaction of  hydrazinolysis with an excess of hydrazine hydrate. The process continues via the ester formation with the pyridine ring closure, then the amide formations of the end products are obtained by hydrolysis into acetic acid.

    Experimental part. A series of new 2-[6-(1,2,4-oxadiazol-5-yl)-, 2-[7-(1,2,4-oxadiazol-5-yl)-, 2-[8-(1,2,4-oxadiazol-5-yl)-[1,2,4]triazolo[4,3-a]pyridine-3-yl]acetamides were obtained in good yields, and their structures were proven by the method of 1H NMR spectroscopy. The prognosis and study of their pharmacological activity were also conducted.

    Conclusions. The synthetic approach of obtaining the representatives of 2-[(1,2,4-oxadiazol-5-yl)-[1,2,4]triazolo[4,3-a]pyridine-3-yl]acetamides previously unknown can be used as an applicable method for the synthesis of diverse functionalized [1,2,4]triazolo[4,3-a]pyridine derivatives.

    DOI: https://doi.org/10.24959/ophcj.19.965
  • The chromatographic study of complexation of functionalized calix[4,8]arenes with aromatic aldehydes

    O. I. Kalchenko, S. O. Cherenok, A. V. Solovyov

    Aim. To study the Host-Guest complexation of octakis(diphenoxyphosphoryloxy)-tetramethylcalix[4]resorcinarene (PRA), 5,17-bis(N-tolyl-iminomethyl)-25,27-dipropoxycalix[4]arene (IC4A), 5,11,17,23-tetrakis(diisopropoxyphosphonyl)-25,26,27,28-tetra-propoxycalix[4]arene (PC4A) and oktakis(diethoxyphosphoryloxy)-tert-butylcalix[8]arene (PC8A)with benzaldehyde, salicylaldehyde, p-anisaldehyde, and veratraldehyde by RP HPLC and molecular modeling methods.

    Results and discussion. The stability constants of Host-Guest complexes (KA = 57 M-1 – 1649 M-1) strongly depend on the calixarene structure and the aromatic aldehyde nature. The enhancement of the complexing properties of calixarenes is observed in the row of PRA < IC4A < PC4A < PC8A. The volume of the calixarene molecular cavity plays the most important role in binding of aldehydes.

    Experimental part. The stability constants of calixarene complexes with aldehydes were determined by RP HPLC method in acetonitrile-water (80 : 20, v/v) solution. The RP HPLC analysis was performed using a LiChrosorb RP-18 column. Molecular modeling of calixarene complexes was carried out using a Hyper Chem 8.0 program.

    Conclusions.The Host-Guest complexation data can be used as a useful tool in design of calixarene based sensor devices for determination of the aromatic aldehydes in air or preparation of chromatographic phases for analysis of aldehydes in solutions.

    DOI: https://doi.org/10.24959/ophcj.19.958
  • The quantum chemical study of the mechanism of the epoxidation reaction of limonene and geraniol with peracetic and perbenzoic acids

    O. M. Agafonov, S. I. Okovytyy, M. Ye. Blazheyevskiy

    Aim. To compare the mechanism of the epoxidation reaction of terpenes Geraniol and Limonene with peracetic acid and perbenzoic acid based on the quantum chemical study.

    Materials and methods. For the calculation the density functional theory (approximation UBH & HLYP/6-31G (d) Gaussian 09) method was applied. The specified density functional allows to correctly describing biradical structures; it is rather economic in terms of the computer time cost, which allows its use in the study of sufficiently complex organic compounds and reactions.

    Results and discussion. The quantum chemical study of mechanisms of the epoxidation reaction of such terpenes as Geraniol and Limonene with peracetic and perbenzonic acids using the density functional theory (approximation UBH & HLYP/6-31G (d) Gaussian 09 program) has been conducted. It has been shown that epoxidation of geraniol with both peroxyacids occurs preferably by the double bond C6=C7 due to stabilization of the corresponding transition state as a result of formation of hydrogen bond between the allyl hydroxyl group and the oxygen atom of the peroxy acid. Epoxidation of Limonene with perbenzoic and peracetic acids occurs via the cyclic double bond characterized by the lowest activation barrier, and it is consistent with the regioselectivity of the process generally known and experimentally proven.

    Conclusions. The results obtained are consistent with the experimental data, confirming the correctness of the use of this UBH & HLYP/6-31G (d) approach to study the regiochemical pecularities of the epoxidation process of alkenes containing several isolated double bonds.

    DOI: https://doi.org/10.24959/ophcj.19.963
  • Development and validation of HPLC/UV-procedures of efavirenz determination in biological fluids

    O. I. Slabiak, I. M. Ivanchuk, L. Yu. Klimenko, Iu. S. Kolisnyk

    Efavirenz is a non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor with a number of side effects manifested by psychiatric symptoms. There are cases of acute poisoning due to administration of efavirenz, including cases of suicide attempts; therefore, efavirenz may be approved as a toxic compound in forensic toxicology.

    Aim. To apply the MiLiChrome® A-02 HPLC-analyzer system for efavirenz quantitative determination in biological fluids and perform validation of the procedures developed.

    Results and discussion. Three HPLC/UV-procedures of efavirenz determination in blood and urine have been proposed. Validation of all procedures developed has been performed by such parameters as specificity, recovery, linearity, accuracy and precision in the variants of the methods of calibration curve and standard. The results of analysis have shown the absence of peaks with the retention time, which is coincident with the efavirenz retention time, on the chromatograms of blank-samples for all variants of procedures of the analyte isolation. All procedures of sample preparation show the high efficiency of efavirenz isolation both for blood and urine (at the level of 90 %). All procedures studied are characterized by the acceptable parameters of linearity, within-run and between-run accuracy and precision.

    Experimental part. Sample preparation of blood and urine was carried out in three ways – 1) liquid-liquid extraction with the mixture of chloroform and 2-propanol (80 : 20); 2) 2-propanol extraction and salting-out with ammonium sulfate; 3) acetonitrile extraction and salting-out with ammonium sulfate. The chromatographic conditions were as follows: the column – Ø2 × 75 mm, ProntoSIL 120-5-C18 AQ, 5 μm; temperature – 40 °С; the flow rate – 100 μl/min; Eluent A – 0.2 M LiClO4 – 0.005 M HClO4; Eluent B – acetonitrile; the elution mode – linear gradient; detection – UV, 247 nm; the volume of injection – 2 μl.

    Conclusions. The set of HPLC-procedures of efavirenz quantitative determination in blood and urine has been developed. Validation of the procedures developed has been performed.

    DOI: https://doi.org/10.24959/ophcj.19.964
  • The search for substances with the antimicrobial activity among morpholine-containing 2-R-phenyliminothiazole derivatives

    H. O. Yeromina, T. V. Upyr, T. P. Osolodchenko, Z. G. Ieromina, N. R. Demchenko, L. O. Perekhoda

    The treatment of infectious diseases is one of the global problems of modern medicine. Despite the large amount of medications the problem of creation of new highly effective antimicrobials is a relevant task. This is, mainly, due to the increase of microbial resistance to the widely used antimicrobials. One of the promising ways to solve this task is the search and creation of new antimicrobial substances.

    Aim. To search for the substances with the antimicrobial activity among derivatives of morpholine-containing 2-R-phenyliminothiazole, namely N-[4-methyl-2-(R-phenylimino)thiazol-3-yl]-morpholine derivatives.

    Results and discussion. The results of the biological screening demonstrated that all compounds studied in the concentration of 1 % revealed the antibacterial and antifungal effect. It was determined that the compounds had the most pronounced antibacterial effect on gram-positive strains of microorganisms (with the average diameter of the inhibition zones of 23-27 mm) and a little less effect on gram-negative strains of microorganisms (with the average diameter of the inhibition zones of 15-25 mm). Compound 3c – N-[4-methyl-2-(2’,5’-dimethylphenylimino)thiazol-3-yl]morpholine hydrochloride showed the highest activity against all strains of microorganisms tested.

    Experimental part. The biological screening for the antimicrobial activity was carried out in vitro by the agar diffusion method (“wells” method).

    Conclusions. It has been found that N-[4-methyl-2-(R-phenylimino)thiazol-3-yl]-morpholine derivatives can be promising objects for further in-depth studies of the antimicrobial activity and for creating new effective antimicrobial drugs.

    DOI: https://doi.org/10.24959/ophcj.19.960